S2MovingCity

Sensing and Serving
a Moving City

CMUP ERI Proposal CMUP-ERI/TIC/0010/2014

The Project

The S2MovingCity will make use of a unique vehicular and sensing infrastructure to focus on providing the city of Porto with a more “effective” solution to support planning and city-wide management to improve the city comfort on city dwellers (transportation, persons, and institutions). The S2MovingCity project proposes to deliver new knowledge and a proof of concept for massive urban sensing of people, vehicles, and environment, supporting data-driven city planning and decision making. S2MovingCity will focus on city-wide flows (persons and vehicles), will try to understand them and correlate with environment information from sensors in order to improve effective mobility and its impact on city comfort and environment.

Our approach will use and extend the current infrastructure to obtain information about the vehicles, people and the environment, such as:

  • Location and mobility patterns of vehicles and people (in the streets, in the buses and in events), including accounting people and vehicles through video cameras and connection to hotspots in the street and in vehicles and
  • City weather with high granularity, noise, environment and pollution levels.

This heterogeneous information from heterogeneous sources is gathered directly through:

  • Fixed stations in the city, such as WiFi hotspots and vehicular road side units when the cameras, sensors or people are near these stations;
  • The vehicular network when: a) buses and municipality vehicles get into range of sensors or people; b) sensors are installed in the buses; c) people are bus passengers; and
  • Mobile collectors such as drones, in the case of events on wide parks.

Working Areas

Infrastructure and Security

Task T1 will extend the existing infrastructure to assure the integration of all sensors and use all possible spots for data gathering: mobile collectors such as drones will be used as enablers for the mobile data gathering, additional WiFi hotspots from private WiFi providers will be integrated, and legacy devices will be integrated in the existing sensing infrastructure. This task will also research a solution for securing the information and the network. The security approach will be tested in the lab prior to the real network.

Mobile Data Gathering

T2 aims to research a solution for data collection in a flexible opportunistic and delay tolerant approach, making use of network coding to optimize data delivery and reduce the amount of data replicas in the network, considering a vehicular multi-hop environment. The data gathering and network coding approaches will be tested in an emulator with real information of the hotspots infrastructure, vehicular network and sensing platform, and the best approaches will be tested in the real network.

Modelling Data Flows, Behavior and Prediction

With both T1 and T2 in place, we now have the data in the infrastructure, received in the required times, and Task T3 can be focused on handling and processing data from the city and, through data mining and simulation, identify relevant flow patterns (traffic, persons) and people demands on the city. T3 will also identify specific or unexpected events that may be of interest in the city broad management. This task will provide the mechanisms and algorithms for processing the data collected (in T2) by the infrastructure (T1), analysing it and delivering critical information to the application layer. The results of the algorithms processing will be available for the visualization and dashboards developed in T4.

Living City Information Plataform

Task T4 will provide a living city information platform that promotes city-wide information as a tool to support active interventions in the city either as private citizens, business / institutional partners and decision makers. It will take the patterns, flows, events identified in T3 to provide a living city information platform middleware for decision makers and to citizens as public technological open interface, end-user interface sensible to city changes and provide customized information to support the decision and evaluation of city wide interventions/policies, mobile applications for the users and institutions. Decisions on the city planning will be taken and the impact will be analysed, through the information gathered from the infrastructure (T1 and T2) and processed (T3).

City Pilots

Task T5 will be responsible to integrate the work from T1 to T4 in the use cases that represent current city planning concrete challenges where the S2MovingCity. The pilots are: Effective mobility - monitor traffic densities / flows and collect environmental information to characterize the typical impact in the environment; City interventions in public spaces - assessing the status and evolution in new pedonal/public areas in terms of impact in person and traffic flows, commercial/institutional and city quality of life; Impact of big events in public spaces - provide option to cellular technologies as basic infrastructure to support major events. The pilots will use the infrastructure developed in the previous tasks T1 and T2, and will generate data to be processed and analysed by T3, visualized in T4, with decisions taken and their impact assessed also in T4.

Partners

Carnegie Mellon University


Instituto de Telecomunicações


University of Aveiro


University of Porto


Veniam Lda.


Câmara Municipal do Porto


Associação Porto Digital

Publications

Numbered list of peer reviewed papers published in Journals

  1. J. Pereira, L. Ricardo, M. Luís, C Senna, S. Sargento, Assessing the reliability of fog computing for smart mobility applications in VANETs, Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 94, No., pp. 317 - 332, 2018, available in https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2018.11.043.

  2. D. Sousa, M. Luís, S. Sargento, ACP Pereira, An Aquatic Mobile Sensing USV Swarm with a Link Quality-Based Delay Tolerant Network, MDPI Sensors, Vol. 18, No. 10, pp. 3440 - 3440, October, 2018.

  3. Z. Zhao, S. Sargento, L. Guardalben, M. Karimzadeh, J. Silva, T. Braun, Mobility Prediction-Assisted Over-The-Top Edge Prefetching for Hierarchical VANETs, IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 1786 - 1801, August, 2018.

  4. P. Cirne, A. Zúquete, S. Sargento, M. Luís, The impact of ECDSA in a VANET routing service: Insights from real data traces, Ad Hoc, Vol., No., pp. -, August 2018.

  5. R. Almeida, R. Oliveira, M. Luís, C Senna, S. Sargento, A Multi-Technology Communication Platform for Urban Mobile Sensing, MDPI Sensors, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 1184 - 1184, April, 2018, 2018.

  6. A.B. Reis, S. Sargento, O. Tonguz, Smarter Cities with Parked Cars as Roadside Units, IEEE Trans. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. PP, No. 99, pp. 1 - 15, March, 2018.

  7. P. Cirne, A. Zúquete, S. Sargento, TROPHY: Trustworthy VANET routing with group authentication keys, Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 71, No. -, pp. 45 - 67, March, 2018.

  8. Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento, “TROPHY: Trustworthy VANET routing with group authentication keys”, Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks, ISSN: 1570-8705, Vol. 71, pp: 45-67, Março 2018. (Revista Tipo A, Factor Impacto 3.047).

  9. Andre B. Reis, Susana Sargento, and Ozan K. Tonguz, “Parked Cars are Excellent Roadside Units”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ISSN: 1524-9050, Volume: 18, Issue: 9, Setembro 2017, Page(s): 2490 – 2502.

  10. P. Santos, J. Rodrigues, S. Cruz, TFSL Lourenço, P. M. d´Orey, Y. Rojo, C. Rocha, S. Sousa, S. Crisóstomo, C. Q. Queirós, S. Sargento, A. Aguiar, J. Barros, PortoLivingLab: an IoT-based Sensing Platform for Smart Cities, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 523 - 532, April, 2018.

  11. P. M. Santos, L. Kholkine, A. Cardote, A. Aguiar, Context classifier for position-based user association control in vehicular hotspots, Elsevier Computer Communications, Volume 121, Pages 71-82, 2018. DOI:10.1016/j.comcom.2018.03.004

  12. Ana Aguiar, Usar as TIC para Melhorar a Experiência de Mobilidade Urbana, revista Pontos de Vista, Agosto de 2018.

  13. Andre B. Reis, Susana Sargento, and Ozan K. Tonguz, “Parked Cars are Excellent Roadside Units”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ISSN: 1524-9050, pp 1 -13, doi 10.1109/TITS.2017.2655498, February 2017.

  14. R. Monteiro, S. Sargento, W. V. Viriyasitavat, O. Tonguz, “A graph structure approach to improving message dissemination in vehicular networks”, springer wireless networks, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1 - 19, April, 2016.

Numbered list of peer-reviewed conference papers published

  1. P. Cirne, A. Zúquete, S. Sargento, loop: A trace-based emulator for Vehicular ad hoc networks, INSTICC 8th International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications SIMULTECH 2018, Porto, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, July, 2018.

  2. G. Pessoa, M. Luís, L. Guardalben, S. Sargento, On the Analysis of Content Dissemination through Real Vehicular Boards, 2018 IEEE 87th Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2018-Spring, Porto, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, June, 2018.

  3. R. Almeida, R. Oliveira, M. Luís, C Senna, S. Sargento, Forwarding Strategies for Future Mobile Smart City Networks, 2018 IEEE 87th Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2018-Spring, Porto, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, June, 2018.

  4. C. Gomes, M. Luís, S. Sargento, A. Zúquete, R. Lopes, Multi-technology vs Single-technology Architecture for Network Coding in VANETs, IEEE International Symp. on Computers and Communications - ISCC, Natal, Brazil, Vol., pp. -, June, 2018.

  5. J. Conde, C Senna, S. Sargento, Content Distribution Optimization Algorithms in Vehicular Networks, 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), Natal, Brazil, Vol., pp. -, June, 2018.

  6. J. Pereira, M. Diaz-Cacho, S. Sargento, A. Zúquete, L. Guardalben, M. Luís, Vehicle-to-Vehicle Real-time Video Transmission through IEEE 802.11p for Assisted-Driving, 2018 IEEE 87th Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2018-Spring, Porto, Portugal, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, May, 2018.

  7. C. Tranoris, S. Denazis, S. Sargento, J. Pereira, L. Guardalben, Enabling Cyber-Physical Systems for 5G networking: A case study on the Automotive Vertical domain, ACM International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE, Montréal, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, May, 2018.

  8. J. Ribeiro, S. Sargento, A. Zúquete, Survey of public transport routes using Wi-Fi, INSTICC International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems VEHITS, Funchal, Portugal, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, March, 2018.

  9. J. Pereira, S. Sargento, J. Fernandes, Decision Support Dashboard for Traffic and Environment Analysis of a Smart City, INSTICC International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems VEHITS, Funchal, Portugal, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, March, 2018.

  10. L. Ricardo, S. Sargento, I. Oliveira, An Information System for Bus Travelling and Performance Evaluation, INSTICC International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems VEHITS, Funchal, Portugal, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, March, 2018.

  11. B. Areias, N. Humberto, S. Sargento, L. Guardalben, 'Towards an Automated Flying Drones Platform, INSTICC International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems VEHITS, Funchal, Portugal, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, March, 2018.

  12. R. Almeida, R. Oliveira, D. Sousa, M. Luís, C Senna, S. Sargento, A Multi-technology Opportunistic Platform for Environmental Data Gathering on Smart Cities, IEEE IEEE Globecom 2017 - Workshop on Low Power Wide Area networking technologies for emerging Internet of Things (LPWA4IoT), Singapore, Singapore, Vol., pp. -, December, 2017.

  13. D. Moura, L. Guardalben, M. Luís, S. Sargento, A Drone-Quality Delay Tolerant Routing Approach for Aquatic Drones Scenarios, IEEE IEEE Globecom 2017 - 8th International Workshop on Wireless Networking and Control for Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles, Singapore, Singapore, Vol., pp. -, December, 2017.

  14. L. Ricardo, S. Sargento, I.C.O. Oliveira, Decision Support System for City Public Transportation, Inforum - Simpósio de Informática, Aveiro, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, October, 2017.

  15. D. Simões, L. Guardalben, S. Sargento, A Drone-Assisted Service for Emergency Scenarios, Inforum - Simpósio de Informática, Aveiro, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, October, 2017.

  16. J. Pereira, A. Zúquete, S. Sargento, M. Diaz-Cacho, L. Guardalben, M. Luís, Message Dissemination Mechanisms for Driving Support Scenarios, Inforum - Simpósio de Informática, Aveiro, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, October, 2017.

  17. J. Ribeiro, A. Zúquete, S. Sargento, Survey of public transport routes using Wi-Fi, Inforum - Simpósio de Informática, Aveiro, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, October, 2017.

  18. R. Oliveira, M. Luís, L. Guardalben, S. Sargento, Multi-Technology Data Collection: Short and Long Range Communication, IEEE 2017 IEEE 86th Vehicular Technology Conference VTC2017-Fall, Toronto, Canada, Vol., pp. -, September, 2017.

  19. R. Oliveira, L. Guardalben, S. Sargento, Long range communications in urban and rural environments, IEEE International Symp. on Computers and Communications - ISCC, Heraklion, Greece, Vol. 978-1-5386-1629-1, pp. 1 - 6, September, 2017.

  20. B. Areias, N. Humberto, L. Guardalben, S. Sargento, Automated Flying Drones Platform for Sensing Smart Spaces, Inforum - Simpósio de Informática, Aveiro, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, September, 2017.

  21. D. Inácio, C Senna, S. Sargento, Content distribution in vehicular networks through information filtering, IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications ISCC, Crete, Greece, Vol., pp. -, July, 2017.

  22. J. Soares, S. Sargento, Re-optimizing the Embedding of Virtual Infrastructures, IEEE International Symp. on Computers and Communications - ISCC, Heraklion, Greece, Vol., pp. -, July, 2017.

  23. J. Soares, JPJA Aparício, S. Sargento, Dynamic Strategies for the Optimal Embedding of Virtual Infrastructures, IEEE International Symp. on Computers and Communications - ISCC, Heraklion, Greece, Vol., pp. -, July, 2017.

  24. F. Castro, A. Martins Martins, S. Sargento, N. Capela, Multihoming for Uplink Communications in Vehicular Networks, IFIP Wireless Days, Porto, Portugal, Vol., pp. -, March, 2017.

  25. G. Pessoa Pessoa, R. Dias, T. Condeixa, J. A. Azevedo, L. Guardalben, S. Sargento, Content distribution emulation for vehicular networks, Wireless Days Conf., Porto, Portugal, Vol. 978-1-5090-5856-3, pp. 1 - 5, March, 2017.

  26. Rongye Shi, Peter Steenkiste, and Manuela Veloso, Generating Synthetic Passenger Data through Joint Traffic-Passenger Modeling and Simulation, in Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC'18), Maui, Hawaii, USA, November 4-7, 2018

  27. Rongye Shi, Peter Steenkiste, and Manuela Veloso, Second-Order Destination Inference using Semi-Supervised Self-Training for Entry-Only Passenger Data, in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Big Data Computing, Applications and Technologies (BDCAT'17), Austin, Texas, USA, December 5-8, 2017

  28. P. M. d´Orey, On the Challenges of Mobile Crowdsensing for Traffic Estimation, ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems SenSys, Delft, Netherlands, November 2017

  29. E. Lima, Impacts of Human Mobility in Mobile Data Offloading, ACM MobiCom Workshop on Challenged Networks - CHANTS, New Delhi, India, October 2018

  30. P. M. d´Orey, Interpreting Traffic Congestion Using Fundamental Diagrams and Probabilistic Graphical Modeling, Workshop on Data-driven Intelligent Transportation DIT, Singapore, Singapore, November, 2018

  31. P. Santos, An Exploratory Study of Relations between Site Features and I2V Link Performance, EAI International Conference on IoT in Urban Space Urb-IoT, Guimarães, Portugal, November 2018

  32. P. Santos, Characterization and Modeling of the Bicycle-Antenna System for the 2.4GHz ISM Band, IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference VNC, Taipei, Taiwan, December,2018

  33. A. Aguiar. Cooperative Content Dissemination on Vehicular Networks, Proc. IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), December 2018.

  34. P. Dias, J. Rodrigues, A. C. Aguiar, G. David. “Planning and managing data for Smart Cities: an application profile for the UrbanSense project”, 4th IEEE Smart City Conference (ISC2). 2018

  35. P. M. Santos, M. Rosa, A. Nguyen, A. C. Aguiar. “Study on Solar-powered IoT Node Autonomy”, 4th IEEE Smart City Conference (ISC2). 2018

  36. Rúben Oliveira, Lucas Guardalben, and Susana Sargento. “Long range communications in urban and rural environments”. In The 22nd IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC 2017), July 2017.

  37. Daniel Inácio, Carlos Senna, and Susana Sargento. “Content distribution in vehicular networks through information filtering”. In The 22nd IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC 2017), July 2017.

  38. Gonçalo Pessoa, Ricardo Dias, Tiago Condeixa, João Azevedo, Lucas Guardalben, Susana Sargento, “Content Distribution Emulation for Vehicular Networks”, IFIP/IEEE Wireless Days 2017 (http://www.wireless-days.com), Porto, Portugal, 29-31 March 2017.​

  39. Francisco Castro, André Martins, Nelson Capela, Susana Sargento, “Multihoming for Uplink Communications in Vehicular Networks”, IFIP/IEEE Wireless Days 2017 (http://www.wireless-days.com), Porto, Portugal, 29-31 March 2017.​

  40. Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento, “Authentication of routing messages on a VANET, InFOrum 2016 (http://inforum.org.pt/INForum2016/), Lisboa, Portugal, 9-10 September 2016.​

  41. André Reis, Susana Sargento, “Statistics of Parked Cars for Urban Vehicular Networks”, Third IEEE WoWMoM International Workshop on Smart Vehicles: Connectivity Technologies and ITS Applications, Coimbra, Portugal, DOI: 10.1109/WoWMoM.2016.7523570, June 2016.

  42. L. Kholkine Kholkine, P. Santos, A. Cardote, A. Aguiar, Detecting Relative Position of User Devices and Mobile Access Points, IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference VNC, Columbus, United States, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, December, 2016.

  43. J. G. P. Rodrigues, A. Aguiar and C. Queirós, "Opportunistic mobile crowdsensing for gathering mobility information: Lessons learned," 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Rio de Janeiro, 2016, pp. 1654-1660.

  44. M. Veloso, P. M. d´Orey, S. Phithakkitnukoon, C. Bento, M. Ferreira, Inferring Exhaust Gases Levels using Taxi Service and Meteorological Data: An Experiment in the City of Porto, Portugal, IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 1970 - 1975, November, 2016.

  45. P. M. d´Orey, J. Azevedo Azevedo, M. Ferreira, Exploring the Solution Space of Self-Automated Parking Lots: A Large-scale Empirical Evaluation of Vehicle Control Strategies, IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Vol. 1, pp. 1134 - 1140, November, 2016.

  46. Y. Rojo, P. Santos, TFSL Lourenço, C.P.P. Pérez-Penichet, T.C. Calçada, A. Aguiar, UrbanSense: an Urban-scale Sensing Platform for the Internet of Things, IEEE International Smart Cities Conference ISC2, Trento, Italy, Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 1, September, 2016.

Contacts

Prof. Susana Sargento and Prof. Manuela Veloso, susana@.ua.pt; mmv@cs.cmu.edu